American Geriatric Society: Guidelines for the Prevention of Falls in Older Adults (2001),


                  Bohannon RW. Reference values for the Timed Up and go test: A descriptive Meta-analysis. J of Geriatric Phys Ther 2006;29:64-68.


                  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Falls  Among Olders Adults: An Overview,


                  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Healthy People 2010, Healthy People 2010 Report (department of Health and Human Services)


                  Chaiwanichsiri D, Janchai S, Tantisiriwat N. Foot disorders and falls in older persons. Gerontology 2008 Dec 3.


                  Dite W, Temple VA.  A clinical test of stepping and change of direction to identify multiple falling older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1566-71.


                  Hess, RJ, Brach, JS, Piva, SR, VanSwearingen, JM, Walking skills can be assessed in older adults with validity of the figure-of-8 walk test. Phys Ther. 2010; 90: 89-99.

                  Lach HW. Incidence and risk factors for developing fear of falling in older adults. Public Health Nurs. 2005;22:45-52.


                                    Legters K. Fear of falling. Phys Ther  2002;82:264-72.


                  National Council on Aging, Center for Healthy Aging, Falls Free Coalition,


                  Shumway-Cook A, Baldwin M,  Polissar NL, Gruber W. Predicting the probability for falls in community-dwelling older adults. Phys Ther 1997;77:812-9


                  Shumway-Cook A, Ciol MA, Hoffman J, et al. Falls in the Medicare population: incidence, associated factors, and impact on health care. Phys Ther. 2009;89:324-332.


                  Thigpen MT, et al. Turning difficulty characteristics of adults aged 65 years or older. Phys Ther;80:1174-87.


                  Whitney SL, Marchetti GF, Schade A, Wrisley DM. The sensitivity  and specificity of the Timed “Up & GO” and the Dynamic Gait Index for self-reported falls in persons with vestibular disorders. J Vestib Res 2004;14:397-409.


                  Whitney SL, Marchetti GF, Morris LO, Sparto PJ. The reliability and validity of the Four Square Step Test for people with balance deficits secondary to a vestibular disorder. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007;88: 99-104.